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The genetic history of the Southern Arc: a bridge between West Asia and Europe

Lazaridis, I. ORCID:, Alpaslan-Roodenberg, S. ORCID:, Acar, A. ORCID:, Açıkkol, A. ORCID:, Agelarakis, A., Aghikyan, L. ORCID:, Akyüz, U., Andreeva, D. ORCID:, Andrijašević, G. ORCID:, Antonović, D. ORCID:, Armit, I. ORCID:, Atmaca, A., Avetisyan, P. ORCID:, Aytek, A. İ. ORCID:, Bacvarov, K., Badalyan, R. ORCID:, Bakardzhiev, S., Balen, J. ORCID:, Bejko, L. ORCID:, Bernardos, R. ORCID: , Bertsatos, A. ORCID:, Biber, H. ORCID:, Bilir, A. ORCID:, Bodružić, M. ORCID:, Bonogofsky, M., Bonsall, C. ORCID:, Borić, D. ORCID:, Borovinić, N. ORCID:, Bravo Morante, G., Buttinger, K., Callan, K. ORCID:, Candilio, F. ORCID:, Carić, M. ORCID:, Cheronet, O. ORCID:, Chohadzhiev, S., Chovalopoulou, M.-E. ORCID:, Chryssoulaki, S., Ciobanu, I. ORCID:, Čondić, N., Constantinescu, M. ORCID:, Cristiani, E. ORCID:, Culleton, B. J. ORCID:, Curtis, E. ORCID:, Davis, J., Demcenco, T. I., Dergachev, V. ORCID:, Derin, Z. ORCID:, Deskaj, S., Devejyan, S., Djordjević, V., Duffett Carlson, K. S. ORCID:, Eccles, L. R., Elenski, N., Engin, A. ORCID:, Erdoğan, N., Erir-Pazarcı, S. ORCID:, Fernandes, D. M. ORCID:, Ferry, M. ORCID:, Freilich, S. ORCID:, Frînculeasa, A. ORCID:, Galaty, M. L. ORCID:, Gamarra, B. ORCID:, Gasparyan, B., Gaydarska, B. ORCID:, Genç, E. ORCID:, Gültekin, T. ORCID:, Gündüz, S. ORCID:, Hajdu, T. ORCID:, Heyd, V., Hobosyan, S., Hovhannisyan, N. ORCID:, Iliev, I., Iliev, L. ORCID:, Iliev, S., İvgin, İ. ORCID:, Janković, I. ORCID:, Jovanova, L., Karkanas, P. ORCID:, Kavaz-Kındığılı, B. ORCID:, Kaya, E. H. ORCID:, Keating, D. ORCID:, Kennett, D. J. ORCID:, Deniz Kesici, S. ORCID:, Khudaverdyan, A. ORCID:, Kiss, K. ORCID:, Kılıç, S. ORCID:, Klostermann, P. ORCID:, Kostak Boca Negra Valdes, S. ORCID:, Kovačević, S. ORCID:, Krenz-Niedbała, M. ORCID:, Krznarić Škrivanko, M. ORCID:, Kurti, R., Kuzman, P. ORCID:, Lawson, A. M. ORCID:, Lazar, C. ORCID:, Leshtakov, K., Levy, T. E. ORCID:, Liritzis, I. ORCID:, Lorentz, K. O., Łukasik, S. ORCID:, Mah, M. ORCID:, Mallick, S., Mandl, K. ORCID:, Martirosyan-Olshansky, K. ORCID:, Matthews, R. ORCID:, Matthews, W. ORCID:, McSweeney, K. ORCID:, Melikyan, V., Micco, A. ORCID:, Michel, M. ORCID:, Milašinović, L., Mittnik, A. ORCID:, Monge, J. M. ORCID:, Nekhrizov, G. ORCID:, Nicholls, R., Nikitin, A. G. ORCID:, Nikolov, V., Novak, M. ORCID:, Olalde, I. ORCID:, Oppenheimer, J. ORCID:, Osterholtz, A. ORCID:, Özdemir, C., Özdoğan, K. T., Öztürk, N., Papadimitriou, N. ORCID:, Papakonstantinou, N. ORCID:, Papathanasiou, A., Paraman, L. ORCID:, Paskary, E. G., Patterson, N. ORCID:, Petrakiev, I., Petrosyan, L., Petrova, V. ORCID:, Philippa-Touchais, A., Piliposyan, A. ORCID:, Pocuca Kuzman, N. ORCID:, Potrebica, H. ORCID:, Preda-Bălănică, B. ORCID:, Premužić, Z., Price, T. D. ORCID:, Qiu, L. ORCID:, Radović, S. ORCID:, Raeuf Aziz, K., Rajić Šikanjić, P. ORCID:, Rasheed Raheem, K., Razumov, S. ORCID:, Richardson, A. ORCID:, Roodenberg, J., Ruka, R., Russeva, V. ORCID:, Şahin, M. ORCID:, Şarbak, A. ORCID:, Savaş, E. ORCID:, Schattke, C., Schepartz, L. ORCID:, Selçuk, T. ORCID:, Sevim-Erol, A. ORCID:, Shamoon-Pour, M. ORCID:, Shephard, H. M. ORCID:, Sideris, A. ORCID:, Simalcsik, A. ORCID:, Simonyan, H., Sinika, V. ORCID:, Sirak, K. ORCID:, Sirbu, G. ORCID:, Šlaus, M. ORCID:, Soficaru, A. ORCID:, Söğüt, B. ORCID:, Sołtysiak, A. ORCID:, Sönmez-Sözer, Ç. ORCID:, Stathi, M. ORCID:, Steskal, M. ORCID:, Stewardson, K., Stocker, S., Suata-Alpaslan, F. ORCID:, Suvorov, A., Szécsényi-Nagy, A. ORCID:, Szeniczey, T. ORCID:, Telnov, N. ORCID:, Temov, S. ORCID:, Todorova, N. ORCID:, Tota, U., Touchais, G. ORCID:, Triantaphyllou, S. ORCID:, Türker, A. ORCID:, Ugarković, M. ORCID:, Valchev, T., Veljanovska, F., Videvski, Z., Virag, C. ORCID:, Wagner, A. ORCID:, Walsh, S. ORCID:, Włodarczak, P. ORCID:, Workman, J. N. ORCID:, Yardumian, A., Yarovoy, E., Yavuz, A. Y. ORCID:, Yılmaz, H. ORCID:, Zalzala, F. ORCID:, Zettl, A. ORCID:, Zhang, Z. ORCID:, Çavuşoğlu, R. ORCID:, Rohland, N., Pinhasi, R. ORCID: and Reich, D. ORCID: (2022) The genetic history of the Southern Arc: a bridge between West Asia and Europe. Science, 377 (6609). ISSN 1095-9203

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To link to this item DOI: 10.1126/science.abm4247


By sequencing 727 ancient individuals from the Southern Arc (Anatolia and its neighbors in Southeastern Europe and West Asia) over 10,000 years, we contextualize its Chalcolithic period and Bronze Age (about 5000 to 1000 BCE), when extensive gene flow entangled it with the Eurasian steppe. Two streams of migration transmitted Caucasus and Anatolian/Levantine ancestry northward, and the Yamnaya pastoralists, formed on the steppe, then spread southward into the Balkans and across the Caucasus into Armenia, where they left numerous patrilineal descendants. Anatolia was transformed by intra–West Asian gene flow, with negligible impact of the later Yamnaya migrations. This contrasts with all other regions where Indo-European languages were spoken, suggesting that the homeland of the Indo-Anatolian language family was in West Asia, with only secondary dispersals of non-Anatolian Indo-Europeans from the steppe.

Item Type:Article
Divisions:Science > School of Archaeology, Geography and Environmental Science > Department of Archaeology
ID Code:107141
Uncontrolled Keywords:Multidisciplinary
Publisher:American Association for the Advancement of Science


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