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Solute movement through intact columns of cryoturbated Upper Chalk

Mahmood-ul-Hassan, M., Akhtar, M. S. and Gregory, P. J. (2008) Solute movement through intact columns of cryoturbated Upper Chalk. Hydrological Processes, 22 (13). pp. 2086-2093. ISSN 0885-6087

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To link to this item DOI: 10.1002/hyp.6808


Cryoturbated Upper Chalk is a dichotomous porous medium wherein the intra-fragment porosity provides water storage and the inter-fragment porosity provides potential pathways for relatively rapid flow near saturation. Chloride tracer movement through 43 cm long and 45 cm diameter undisturbed chalk columns was studied at water application rates of 0.3, 1.0, and 1.5 cm h(-1). Microscale heterogeneity in effluent was recorded using a grid collection system consisting of 98 funnel-shaped cells each 3.5 cm in diameter. The total porosity of the columns was 0.47 +/- 0.02 m(3) m(-3), approximately 13% of pores were >15 mu m diameter, and the saturated hydraulic conductivity was 12.66 +/- 1.31 m day(-1). Although the column remained unsaturated during the leaching even at all application rates, proportionate flow through macropores increased as the application rate decreased. The number of dry cells (with 0 ml of effluent) increased as application rate decreased. Half of the leachate was collected from 15, 19 and 22 cells at 0.3, 1.0, 1.5 cm h(-1) application rates respectively. Similar breakthrough curves (BTCs) were obtained at all three application rates when plotted as a function of cumulative drainage, but they were distinctly different when plotted as a function of time. The BTCs indicate that the columns have similar drainage requirement irrespective of application rates, as the rise to the maxima (C/C-o) is almost similar. However, the time required to achieve that leaching requirement varies with application rates, and residence time was less in the case of a higher application rate. A two-region convection-dispersion model was used to describe the BTCs and fitted well (r(2) = 0.97-0-99). There was a linear relationship between dispersion coefficient and pore water velocity (correlation coefficient r = 0.95). The results demonstrate the microscale heterogeneity of hydrodynamic properties in the Upper Chalk. Copyright (C) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Item Type:Article
Divisions:Science > School of Archaeology, Geography and Environmental Science
Life Sciences > School of Agriculture, Policy and Development > Department of Crop Science
ID Code:3763
Uncontrolled Keywords:cryoturbated Upper Chalk; preferential flow; chloride; breakthrough; micro-scale heterogeneity
Additional Information:
Publisher:Wiley InterScience

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