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Estrogen regulation of chicken riboflavin carrier protein gene is mediated by ERE half sites without direct binding of estrogen receptor

Bahadur, U., Ganjam, G. K., Vasudevan, N. ORCID: and Kondaiah, P. (2005) Estrogen regulation of chicken riboflavin carrier protein gene is mediated by ERE half sites without direct binding of estrogen receptor. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 231 (1-2). pp. 1-11. ISSN 03037207

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To link to this item DOI: 10.1016/j.mce.2004.12.007


Estrogen is an important steroid hormone that mediates most of its effects on regulation of gene expression by binding to intracellular receptors. The consensus estrogen response element (ERE) is a 13 bp palindromic inverted repeat with a three nucleotide spacer. However, several reports suggest that many estrogen target genes are regulated by diverse elements, such as imperfect EREs and ERE half sites (ERE 1/2), which are either the proximal or the distal half of the palindrome. To gain more insight into ERE half site-mediated gene regulation, we used a region from the estrogen-regulated chicken riboflavin carrier protein (RCP) gene promoter that contains ERE half sites. Using moxestrol, an analogue of estrogen and transient transfection of deletion and mutation containing RCP promoter/reporter constructs in chicken hepatoma (LMH2A) cells, we identified an estrogen response unit (ERU) composed of two consensus ERE 1/2 sites and one non-consensus ERE 1/2 site. Mutation of any of these sites within this ERU abolishes moxestrol response. Further, the ERU is able to confer moxestrol responsiveness to a heterologous promoter. Interestingly, RCP promoter is regulated by moxestrol in estrogen responsive human MCF-7 cells, but not in other cell lines such as NIH3T3 and HepG2 despite estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-�) co transfection. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) with promoter regions encompassing the half sites and nuclear extracts from LMH2A cells show the presence of a moxestrol-induced complex that is abolished by a polyclonal anti-ER� antibody. Surprisingly, estrogen receptor cannot bind to these promoter elements in isolation. Thus, there appears to be a definite requirement for some other factor(s) in addition to estrogen receptor, for the generation of a suitable response of this promoter to estrogen. Our studies therefore suggest a novel mechanism of gene regulation by estrogen, involving ERE half sites without direct binding of ER to the cognate elements.

Item Type:Article
Divisions:No Reading authors. Back catalogue items
ID Code:59124

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