In vivo selection for metastasis promoting genes in the mouse
Gumireddy, K., Sun, F. X., Klein-Szanto, A. J., Gibbins, J. M., Gimotty, P. A., Saunders, A. J., Schultz, P. G. and Huang, Q. H. (2007) In vivo selection for metastasis promoting genes in the mouse. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104 (16). pp. 6696-6701. ISSN 0027-8424
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0701145104
Here, we report the identification of a metastasis promoting factor by a forward genetic screen in mice. A retroviral cDNA library was introduced into the nonmetastatic cancer cell line 168FARN, which was then orthotopically transplanted into mouse mammary fat pads, followed by selection for cells that metastasize to the lung. The genes encoding the disulfide isomerase ERp5 and beta-catenin were found to promote breast cancer invasion and metastasis. Disulfide isomerases (thiol isomerases), which catalyze disulfide bond formation, reduction, and isomerization, have not previously been implicated in cancer cell signaling and tumor metastasis. Overexpression of ERp5 promotes both in vitro migration and invasion and in vivo metastasis of breast cancer cells. These effects were shown to involve activation of ErbB2 and phosphoinositicle 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways through dimerization of ErbB2. Activation of ErbB2 and PI3K subsequently stimulates RhoA and beta-catenin, which mediate the migration and invasion of tumor cells. Inhibition of ErbB2 and PI3K reverses the phenotypes induced by ERp5. Finally, ERp5 was shown to be up-regulated in human surgical samples of invasive breast cancers. These data identify a link between disulfide isomerases and tumor development, and provide a mechanism that modulates ErbB2 and PI3K signaling in the promotion of cancer progression.