Extracellular disulfide exchange and the regulation of cellular function
Jordan, P. A. and Gibbins, J. M. (2006) Extracellular disulfide exchange and the regulation of cellular function. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, 8 (3-4). pp. 312-324. ISSN 1523-0864
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An emerging concept is that disulfide bonds can act as a dynamic scaffold to present mature proteins in different conformational and functional states on the cell surface. Two examples are the conversion of the receptor, integrin a alpha(IIb)beta(3), from a low affinity to a high affinity state, and the interaction of CD4 receptor with the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 to promote virus-cell fusion. In both of these cases there is a remodeling of the protein disulfide bonding pattern. The formation and rearrangement of disulfide bonds is modulated by a family of enzymes known as the thiol isomerases, which include protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), ERp5, ERp57, and ERp72. While these enzymes were reported originally to be restricted in location to the endoplasmic reticulum, in some cells thiol isomerases are found on the cell surface. This may indicate a wider role for these enzymes in cell function. In platelets it has been shown that reagents that react with cell surface sulfhydryl groups are capable of blocking a number of functional responses, including integrin-mediated aggregation, adhesion, and granule secretion. Furthermore, the use of function blocking antibodies to either PDI or ERp5 causes inhibition of these functional responses. This review summarizes current knowledge of the extracellular regulation of disulfide exchange and the implications of this in the regulation of cell function.