Platelet adhesion signalling and the regulation of thrombus formation
Gibbins, J. M. (2004) Platelet adhesion signalling and the regulation of thrombus formation. Journal of Cell Science, 117 (16). pp. 3415-3425. ISSN 0021-9533
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1242/jcs.01325
Platelets perform a central role in haemostasis and thrombosis. They adhere to subendothelial collagens exposed at sites of blood vessel injury via the glycoprotein (GP) 1b-V-IX receptor complex, GPV1 and integrin alpha(2)beta(1)-These receptors perform distinct functions in the regulation of cell signalling involving non-receptor tyrosine kinases (e.g. Src, Fyn, Lyn, Syk and Btk), adaptor proteins, phospholipase C and lipid kinases such as phosphoinositide 3-kinase. They are also coupled to an increase in cytosolic calcium levels and protein kinase C activation, leading to the secretion of paracrine/autocrine platelet factors and an increase in integrin receptor affinities. Through the binding of plasma fibrinogen and von Willebrand Factor to integrin alphaIIbbeta(3), a platelet thrombus is formed. Although increasing evidence indicates that each of the adhesion receptors GPIb-V-IX and GPV1 and integrins alpha(2)beta(1) and alpha(IIb)beta(3) contribute to the signalling that regulates this process, the individual roles of each are only beginning to be dissected. By contrast, adhesion receptor signalling through platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1) is implicated in the inhibition of platelet function and thrombus formation in the healthy circulation. Recent studies indicate that understanding of platelet adhesion signalling mechanisms might enable the development of new strategies to treat and prevent thrombosis.