Bending, twisting, and breaking CuCN chains to produce framework materials: the reactions of CuCN with alkali-metal halides
Chippindale, A.M., Hibble, S.J. and Cowley, A.R. (2004) Bending, twisting, and breaking CuCN chains to produce framework materials: the reactions of CuCN with alkali-metal halides. Inorganic Chemistry, 43 (25). pp. 8040-8048. ISSN 0020-1669
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1021/ic049011+
The reactions of the low-temperature polymorph of copper(I) cyanide (LT-CuCN) with concentrated aqueous alkali-metal halide solutions have been investigated. At room temperature, KX (X = Br and I) and CsX (X = Cl, Br, and I) produce the addition products K[Cu-2(CN)(2)Br](H2O)-H-. (I), K-3[Cu-6(CN)(6)I-3](.)2H(2)O (II), Cs[Cu-3(CN)(3)Cl] (III), Cs[Cu-3(CN)(3)Br] (IV), and Cs-2[Cu-4(CN)(4)I-2](H2O)-H-. (V), with 3-D frameworks in which the -(CuCN)- chains present in CuCN persist. No reaction occurs, however, with NaX (X = Cl, Br, I) or KCl. The addition compounds, I-V, reconvert to CuCN when washed. Both low- and high-temperature polymorphs of CuCN (LT- and HT-CuCN) are produced, except in the case of Cs[Cu-3(CN)(3)Cl] (III), which converts only to LT-CuCN. Heating similar AX-CuCN reaction mixtures under hydrothermal conditions at 453 K for 1 day produces single crystals of I-V suitable for structure determination. Under these more forcing conditions, reactions also occur with NaX (X = Cl, Br, I) and KCl. NaBr and KCl cause some conversion of LT-CuCN into HT-CuCN, while NaCl and NaI, respectively, react to form the mixed-valence Cu(I)/Cu(II) compounds [Cu-II(OH2)(4)][Cu-4(I)(CN)(6)], a known phase, and [Cu-II(OH2)(4)][Cu-4(I)(CN)(4)I-2] (VI), a 3-D framework, which contains infinite -(CuCN)- chains. After 3 days of heating under hydrothermal conditions, the reaction between KI and CuCN produces [Cu-II(OH2)(4)][Cu-2(I)(CN)I-2](2) (VII), in which the CuCN chains are broken into single Cu-CN-Cu units, which in turn are linked into chains via iodine atoms and then into layers via long Cu-C and Cu-Cu interactions.