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Low-temperature sol-gel preparation of ordered nanoparticles of tungsten carbide/oxide

Hudson, M.J., Peckett, J.W. and Harris, P. J.F. (2005) Low-temperature sol-gel preparation of ordered nanoparticles of tungsten carbide/oxide. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 44 (15). pp. 5575-5578. ISSN 0888-5885

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To link to this item DOI: 10.1021/ie040247v

Abstract/Summary

Tungsten carbide/oxide particles have been prepared by the gel precipitation of tungstic acid in the presence of an organic gelling agent [10% ammonium poly(acrylic acid) in water, supplied by Ciba Specialty Chemicals]. The feed solution; a homogeneous mixture of sodium tungstate and ammonium poly(acrylic acid) in water, was dropped from a 1-mm jet into hydrochloric acid saturated hexanol/concentrated hydrochloric acid to give particles of a mixture of tungstic acid and poly(acrylic acid), which, after drying in air at 100 degrees C and heating to 900 degrees C in argon for 2 h, followed by heating in carbon dioxide for a further 2 h and cooling, gives a mixture of WO, WC, and a trace of NaxWO3, with the carbon for the formation of WC being provided by the thermal carbonization of poly(acrylic acid). The pyrolyzed product is friable and easily broken down in a pestle and mortar to a fine powder or by ultrasonics, in water, to form a stable colloid. The temperature of carbide formation by this process is significantly lower (900 degrees C) than that reported for the commercial preparation of tungsten carbide, typically > 1400 degrees C. In addition, the need for prolonged grinding of the constituents is obviated because the reacting moieties are already in intimate contact on a molecular basis. X-ray diffraction, particle sizing, transmission electron microscopy, surface area, and pore size distribution studies have been carried out, and possible uses are suggested. A flow diagram for the process is described.

Item Type:Article
Refereed:Yes
Divisions:Faculty of Life Sciences > School of Chemistry, Food and Pharmacy > Department of Chemistry
ID Code:11353
Publisher:American Chemical Society

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