The kinetics of the 2π+2π photodimerisation reactions of single-crystalline derivatives of trans-cinnamic acid: a study by infrared microspectroscopy
Jenkins, S.L. , Almond, M.J., Atkinson, S.D.M., Drew, M.G.B., Hollins, P., Mortimore, J.L. and Tobin, M.J. (2006) The kinetics of the 2π+2π photodimerisation reactions of single-crystalline derivatives of trans-cinnamic acid: a study by infrared microspectroscopy. Journal of Molecular Structure: THEOCHEM, 786 (2-3). pp. 220-226. ISSN 0166-1280
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1016/j.molstruc.2005.10.013
The kinetics of the photodimerisation reactions of the 2- and 4-β-halogeno-derivatives of trans-cinnamic acid (where the halogen is fluorine, chlorine or bromine) have been investigated by infrared microspectroscopy. It is found that none of the reactions proceed to 100% yield. This is in line with a reaction mechanism developed by Wernick and his co-workers that postulates the formation of isolated monomers within the solid, which cannot react. β-4-Bromo and β-4-chloro-trans-cinnamic acids show approximately first order kinetics, although in both cases the reaction accelerates somewhat as it proceeds. First order kinetics is explained in terms of a reaction between one excited- and one ground-state monomer molecule, while the acceleration of the reaction implies that it is promoted as defects are formed within the crystal. By contrast β-2-chloro-trans-cinnamic acid shows a strongly accelerating reaction which models closely to the contracting cube equation. β-2-Fluoro- and β-4-fluoro-trans-cinnamic acids show a close match to first order kinetics. The 4-fluoro-derivative, however, shows a reaction that proceeds via a structural intermediate. The difference in behaviour between the 2-fluoro- and 4-fluoro-derivative may be due to different C–HF hydrogen bonds observed within these single-crystalline starting materials.