The impact of deformation strain on the formation of banded clouds in idealized modeling experiments
Gray, S. L. and Dacre, H. F. (2008) The impact of deformation strain on the formation of banded clouds in idealized modeling experiments. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 134 (633). pp. 859-874. ISSN 1477-870X
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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/qj.262
Experiments are performed using an idealized version of an operational forecast model to determine the impact on banded frontal clouds of the strength of deformational forcing, low-level baroclinicity, and model representation of convection. Line convection is initiated along the front, and slantwise bands extend from the top of the line-convection elements into the cold air. This banding is attributed primarily to M adjustment. The cross-frontal spreading of the cold pool generated by the line convection leads to further triggering of upright convection in the cold air that feeds into these slantwise bands. Secondary low-level bands form later in the simulations; these are attributed to the release of conditional symmetric instability. Enhanced deformation strain leads to earlier onset of convection and more coherent line convection. A stronger cold pool is generated, but its speed is reduced relative to that seen in experiments with weaker deformational strain, because of inhibition by the strain field. Enhanced low-level baroclinicity leads to the generation of more inertial instability by line convection (for a given capping height of convection), and consequently greater strength of the slantwise circulations formed by M adjustment. These conclusions are based on experiments without a convective-parametrization scheme. Experiments using the standard or a modified scheme for this model demonstrate known problems with the use of this scheme at the awkward 4 km grid length used in these simulations. Copyright © 2008 Royal Meteorological Society