Antibacterials and modulators of bacterial resistance from the immature cones of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana
Smith, E. C. J., Williamson, E. M., Wareham, N., Kaatz, G. W. and Gibbons, S. (2007) Antibacterials and modulators of bacterial resistance from the immature cones of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana. Phytochemistry, 68 (2). pp. 210-217. ISSN 0031-9422
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To link to this item DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2006.10.001
As part of an on-going project to characterize compounds from immature conifer cones with antibacterial or modulatory activity against multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of Staphylococcus aureus, eight compounds were isolated from the cones of Chatnaecyparis lawsoniana. The active compounds were mainly diterpenes, with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 4 to 128 mu g/ml against MDR effluxing S. aureus strains and two epidemic methicillin-resistant (EMRSA) clinical isolates. The compounds extracted were the diterpenes ferruginol, pisiferol and its epimer 5-epipisiferol, formosanoxide, trans-communic acid and torulosal, the sesquiterpene oplopanonyl acetate and the germacrane 4 beta-hydroxygermacra-1(10)-5-diene. Some of these compounds also exhibited modulatory activity in potentiating antibiotic activity against effluxing strains and ferruginol, used at a sub-inhibitory concentration, resulted in an 80-fold potentiation of oxacillin activity against strain EMRSA-15. An efflux inhibition assay using an S. aureus strain possessing the MDR NorA efflux pump resulted in 40% inhibition of ethidium bromide efflux at 10 mu M ferruginol (2.86 mu g/ml). We report the H-1 and C-13 NMR data for the cis A/B ring junction epimer of pisiferol which we have named 5-epipisiferol. We also unambiguously assign all H-1 and C-13 NMR resonances for trans-communic acid. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.