Novel titanocene anti-cancer drugs and their effect on apoptosis and the apoptotic pathway in prostate cancer cells
O'Connor, K., Gill, C., Tacke, M., Rebmann, F.J.K., Strohfeldt, K., Sweeney, N., Fitzpatrick, J.M. and Watson, R.W.G. (2006) Novel titanocene anti-cancer drugs and their effect on apoptosis and the apoptotic pathway in prostate cancer cells. Apoptosis, 11 (7). pp. 1205-1214. ISSN 1360-8185
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1007/s10495-006-6796-1
Advanced prostate cancer is not curable by current treatment strategies indicating a significant need for new chemotherapeutic options. Highly substituted ansatitanocene compounds have shown promising cytotoxic activity in a range of cancers. The objectives of this study are to examine the effects of these titanocene compounds on prostate cancer cells. Prostate cell lines were treated with three novel titanocene compounds and compared to titanocene dichloride and cisplatin. Percent apoptosis, viability and cell cycle were assessed using propidium iodide DNA incorporation with flow cytometry. Cytochrome C was assessed by western blotting of mitochondrial and cytoplasmic fractions. Apoptosis Inducing Factor was assessed by confocal microscopy. These novel compounds induced more apoptosis compared to cisplatin in a dose dependent manner. Compound Y had the most significant effect on cell cycle and apoptosis. Despite the release of cytochrome C from the mitochondrial fraction there was no inhibition of apoptosis with the pan caspase inhibitor, ZVAD-FMK. AIF was shown to translocate from the cytosol to the nucleus mediating a caspase independent cell death. Bcl-2 over expressing PC-3 cells, which were resistant to cisplatin induced apoptosis, underwent apoptosis following treatment with all the titanocene compounds. This study demonstrates possible mechanisms by which these novel titanocene compounds can mediate their apoptotic effect in vitro. The fact that they can induce more apoptosis than cisplatin in advanced cancer cell lines would confer an advantage over cisplatin. They represent exciting new agents with future potential for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer.