Individual variation in psychological and psychomotor symptoms following smoking cessation: the implications for treatment
Gilbert, H. M. and Warburton, D. M. (2003) Individual variation in psychological and psychomotor symptoms following smoking cessation: the implications for treatment. Psychology & Health, 18 (5). pp. 613-624. ISSN 0887-0446
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1080/0887044032000069892
Some commonly experienced signs and symptoms occur during abstinence from tobacco, but specific signs and symptoms and their intensity vary greatly from individual to individual. The aim of this study was to re-examine psychological and psychomotor symptoms in smokers in the general population, and to explore the individual variation in these. Quitting smokers (n = 123) reported their experiences pre- and post-cessation, on a questionnaire developed for the study. Analysis of variance and frequency analysis showed significant decreases between pre- and post-cessation on positive experiences (F = 9.81, p < 0.0001) but no significant change on negative experiences, suggesting a loss of pleasure rather than increased negative affect upon quitting. The variance of the pre- to post-cessation difference score suggested wide variation in the reporting of withdrawal symptoms. These results lead us to consider the implications for treatment, using cognitive therapies and moderating the significant emphasis that is at present put on withdrawal.