Expressions and activities of cell cycle regulatory molecules during the transition from myocyte hyperplasia to hypertrophy
Poolman, R.A. and Brooks, G. (1998) Expressions and activities of cell cycle regulatory molecules during the transition from myocyte hyperplasia to hypertrophy. Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, 30 (10). pp. 2121-2135. ISSN 0022-2828
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1006/jmcc.1998.0808
The role of cell cycle dependent molecules in controlling the switch from cardiac myocyte hyperplasia to hypertrophy remains unclear, although in the rat this process occurs between day 3 and 4 after birth. In this study we have determined (1) cell cycle profiles by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS); and (2) expressions, co-expressions and activities of a number of cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and CDK inhibitors by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunoblotting andin vitrokinase assays in freshly isolated rat cardiac myocytes obtained from 2, 3, 4 and 5-day-old animals. The percentage of myocytes found in the S phase of the cell cycle decreased significantly during the transition from hyperplasia to hypertrophy (5.5, 3.5, 2.3 and 1.9% of cells in 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-day-old myocytes, respectively,P<0.05), concomitant with a significant increase in the percentage of G0/G1phase cells. At the molecular level, the expressions and activities of G1/S and G2/M phase acting cyclins and CDKs were downregulated significantly during the transition from hyperplasia to hypertrophy, whereas the expressions and activities of G1phase acting cyclins and CDKs were upregulated significantly during this transition. In addition, p21CIP1- and p27KIP1- associated CDK kinase activities remained relatively constant when histone H1 was used as a substrate, whereas phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein was upregulated significantly during the transition from hyperplasia to hypertrophy. Thus, there is a progressive and significant G0/G1phase blockade during the transition from myocyte hyperplasia to hypertrophy. Whilst CDK2 and cdc2 may be pivotal in the withdrawal of cardiac myocytes from the cell cycle, CDK4 and CDK6 may be critical for maintaining hypertrophic growth of the myocyte during development.
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