Arterial disease and thrombosis in the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS): A pathogenic role for endothelin-1 (ET-1)
Atsumi, T., Khamashta, M.A., Haworth, R.S., Brooks, G., Amengual, O., Ichiawa, K., Koike, T. and Hughes, G.R.V. (1998) Arterial disease and thrombosis in the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS): A pathogenic role for endothelin-1 (ET-1). Arthritis and Rheumatism, 41 (5). pp. 800-807. ISSN 0004-3591
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1002/1529-0131(199805)41:5<800::AID-ART5>3.0.CO;2-J
Objective To explore a possible correlation between endothelin 1 (ET-1), the most potent endothelium-derived contracting factor that modulates vascular smooth muscle tone, and arterial disease in patients with the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Methods Plasma levels of ET-1 were measured in APS patients with (n = 16) and without (n = 11) arterial thrombosis and in non-APS patients with arterial thrombosis (n = 9). In addition, steady-state prepro-ET-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were determined in endothelial cells treated with a range of human monoclonal anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) (as anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies) by semiquantitative 32P-dCTP-labeled reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results Compared with healthy controls, markedly increased plasma levels of ET-1 were found in APS patients with arterial thrombosis (2.00 ± 0.87 versus 0.96 ± 0.37 pg/ml; P = 0.0001) but not in other groups. Three human monoclonal aCL induced prepro-ET-1 mRNA levels significantly more than did control monoclonal antibody lacking aCL activity. Conclusion Plasma ET-1 levels correlated significantly with a history of arterial thrombosis in patients with APS. Prepro-ET-1 mRNA was induced by human monoclonal aCL in the in vitro experimental system. The induction of ET-1 by antiphospholipid antibodies might contribute to increased arterial tone, leading to vasospasm and, ultimately, to arterial occlusion.