Protein kinase C down-regulation, and not transient activation, correlates with melanocyte growth
Brooks, G., Wilson, R.E., Dooley, T.P., Goss, M.W. and Hart, I.R. (1991) Protein kinase C down-regulation, and not transient activation, correlates with melanocyte growth. Cancer Research, 51. pp. 3281-3288. ISSN 0008-5472
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The nontumorigenic, immortal line of murine melanocytes, Mel-ab, requires the continual presence of biologically active phorbol esters for growth (R. E. Wilson et al., Cancer Res., 49: 711–716, 1989). Comparable treatments of B16 murine melanoma cells result in partial inhibition of cell proliferation. The role of protein kinase C (PKC) in the modulation of growth of cells from these two melanocytic cell lines has been investigated. Significant levels of PKC were present in quiescent Mel-ab cells as determined by Western blotting, whereas no immunoreactive protein was detected in cell extracts from either proliferating Mel-ab or B16.F1 cells. Phosphorylation of a Mr 80,000 protein, which by one- and two-dimensional gel analysis comigrated with the known Mr 80,000 protein substrate of PKC in fibroblasts, was induced in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-stimulated quiescent Mel-ab cells but not in proliferating Mel-ab cells or B16.F1 melanoma cells. Direct measurement of PKC activity in these cells demonstrated a 10-fold greater level of activity in quiescent Mel-ab cells (262 ± 50 pmol/min/mg SD) compared with growing cells (22.8 ± 11.8 pmol/min/mg SD). An intermediate level of activity was detected in proliferating B16.F1 melanoma cells (148.5 ± 20.4 pmol/min/mg SD). The subcellular distribution of PKC was dependent upon the growth state of the cells such that quiescent Mel-ab cells displayed a higher level of activity in the cytosol, whereas growing Melab cells displayed greater activity in the particulate fraction. Like many other transformed lines, B16.F1 melanoma cells constitutively expressed the majority of enzyme activity in the particulate fraction. Measurement of [3H]phorbol ester binding in intact cells paralleled the PKC activation data such that quiescent Mel-ab cells displayed binding of 1612 ± 147 cpm/106 cells, whereas proliferating Mel-ab and B16.F1 melanoma cells displayed binding of 652 ± 28 and 947 ± 81 cpm/106 cells, respectively. Membrane-permeant diacylglycerol analogues, which activated but did not down-regulate PKC, were devoid of growth-stimulating effects on melanocytes, even in the presence of the specific diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor, R59022. Together, these data show that PKC down-regulation, and not activation, correlates with the growth of melanocytes in culture.