Influence of birth weight on gene regulators of lipid metabolism and utilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs.
Williams, P. J., Marten, N., Wilson, V., Litten-Brown, J., Corson, A. M., Clarke, L., Symonds, M. E. and Mostyn, A. (2009) Influence of birth weight on gene regulators of lipid metabolism and utilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs. Reproduction, 138 (3). pp. 609-617. ISSN 1741-7899
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To link to this item DOI: 10.1530/REP-08-0445
Epidemiological studies suggest that low-birth weight infants show poor neonatal growth and increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome, in particular, obesity and diabetes. Adipose tissue development is regulated by many genes, including members of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) and the fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) families. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of birth weight on key adipose and skeletal muscle tissue regulating genes. Piglets from 11 litters were ranked according to birth weight and 3 from each litter assigned to small, normal, or large-birth weight groups. Tissue samples were collected on day 7 or 14. Plasma metabolite concentrations and the expression of PPARG2, PPARA, FABP3, and FABP4 genes were determined in subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Adipocyte number and area were determined histologically. Expression of FABP3 and 4 was significantly reduced in small and large, compared with normal, piglets in adipose tissue on day 7 and in skeletal muscle on day 14. On day 7, PPARA and PPARG2 were significantly reduced in adipose tissue from small and large piglets. Adipose tissue from small piglets contained more adipocytes than normal or large piglets. Birth weight had no effect on adipose tissue and skeletal muscle lipid content. Low-birth weight is associated with tissue-specific and time-dependent effects on lipid-regulating genes as well as morphological changes in adipose tissue. It remains to be seen whether these developmental changes alter an individual's susceptibility to metabolic syndrome.