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Genome expansion and gene loss in powdery mildew fungi reveal tradeoffs in extreme parasitism

Spanu, P. D., Abbott, J. C., Amselem, J., Burgis, T. A., Soanes, D. M., Stuber, K., Loren van Themaat, E. V., Brown, J. K.M., Butcher, S. A., Gurr, S. J., Lebrun, M.-H., Ridout, C. J., Schulze-Lefert, P., Talbot, N. J., Ahmadinejad, N., Ametz, C., Barton, G. R., Benjdia, M., Bidzinski, P., Bindschedler, L. V., Both, M., Brewer, M. T., Cadle-Davidson, L., Cadle-Davidson, M. M., Collemare, J., Cramer, R. K., Frenkel, O., Godfrey, D., Harriman, J., Hoede, C., King, B. C., Klages, S., Kleemann, J., Knoll, D., Koti, P. S., Kreplak, J., Lopez-Ruiz, F. J., Lu, X., Maekawa, T., Mahanil, S., Micali, C., Milgroom, M. G., Montana, G., Noir, S., O'Connell, R. J., Oberhaensli, S., Parlange, F., Pedersen, C., Quesneville, H., Reinhardt, R., Rott, M., Sacristan, S., Schmidt, S. M., Schon, M., Skamnioti, P., Sommer, H., Stephens, A., Takahara, H., Thordal-Christensen, H., Vigouroux, M., Wessling, R., Wicker, T. and Panstruga, R. (2010) Genome expansion and gene loss in powdery mildew fungi reveal tradeoffs in extreme parasitism. Science, 330 (6010). pp. 1543-1546. ISSN 1095-9203

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To link to this article DOI: 10.1126/science.1194573

Abstract/Summary

Powdery mildews are phytopathogens whose growth and reproduction are entirely dependent on living plant cells. The molecular basis of this life-style, obligate biotrophy, remains unknown. We present the genome analysis of barley powdery mildew, Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Blumeria), as well as a comparison with the analysis of two powdery mildews pathogenic on dicotyledonous plants. These genomes display massive retrotransposon proliferation, genome-size expansion, and gene losses. The missing genes encode enzymes of primary and secondary metabolism, carbohydrate-active enzymes, and transporters, probably reflecting their redundancy in an exclusively biotrophic life-style. Among the 248 candidate effectors of pathogenesis identified in the Blumeria genome, very few (less than 10) define a core set conserved in all three mildews, suggesting thatmost effectors represent species-specific adaptations.

Item Type:Article
Refereed:Yes
Divisions:Faculty of Life Sciences
Faculty of Life Sciences > School of Chemistry, Food and Pharmacy > Department of Chemistry
Interdisciplinary centres and themes > Chemical Analysis Facility (CAF)
ID Code:17117
Publisher:American Association for the Advancement of Science

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