Strongly nucleophilic RhI centre in square-planar complexes with terdentate (κ3) 2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridine ligands: crystallographic, electrochemical and density functional theoretical studies
de Pater, B. C., Frühauf, H.-W., Vrieze, K., de Gelder, R., Baerends, E. J., McCormack, D., Lutz, M., Spek, A. L. and Hartl, F. (2004) Strongly nucleophilic RhI centre in square-planar complexes with terdentate (κ3) 2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridine ligands: crystallographic, electrochemical and density functional theoretical studies. European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, 2004 (8). pp. 1675-1686. ISSN 1099-0682
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1002/ejic.200300699
Rh-I-terpyridine complexes have been unambiguously formed for the first time. The 2,21:6',2"-terpyridine (tpy), 4'-chloro-2,2':6',2"-terpyridine (4'-Cl-tpy) and 4'-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl-ortho-carboranyl)-2,2':6',2"-terpyridine (carboranyl-tpy) ligands were used for successful syntheses and characterisation of the corresponding Rh-I complexes with halide coligands, [Rh(X)(4'-Y-terpyridine)] (X = Cl, Y = H, Cl, carboranyl; X = Br, Y = H). All four neutral Rh-tpy complexes are square planar, with Rh-X bonds in the plane of the 4'-Y-terpyridine ligands. Full characterisation of these dark blue, highly air-sensitive compounds was hampered by their poor solubility in various organic solvents. This is mainly due to the formation of pi-stacked aggregates, as evidenced by the crystal structure of [Rh(Cl)(tpy)]; in addition, [Rh(Cl)(carboranyl-tpy)] merely forms discrete dimers. The (bonding) properties of the novel Rh-I-terpyridine complexes have been studied with single-crystal X-ray diffraction, (time-dependent) density functional theoretical (DFT) calculations, far-infrared spectroscopy, electronic absorption spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. From DFT calculations, the HOMO of the studied Rh-I-terpyridine complexes involves predominantly the metal centre, while the LUMO resides on the terpyridine ligand. Absorption bands of the studied complexes in the visible region (400-900 nm) can be assigned to MLCT and MLCT/XLCT transitions. The relatively low oxidation potentials of [Rh(X)(tpy)] (X = Cl, Br) point to a high electron density on the metal centre. This makes the Rh-I-terpyridine complexes strongly nucleophilic and (potentially) highly reactive towards various (small) substrate molecules containing carbon-halide bonds.
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