Multimetallic ruthenium(II) complexes as electrochemiluminescent labels
Staffilani, M., Höss, E., Giesen, U., Schneider, E., Hartl, F., Josel, H.-P. and De Cola, L. (2003) Multimetallic ruthenium(II) complexes as electrochemiluminescent labels. Inorganic Chemistry, 42 (24). pp. 7789-7798. ISSN 0020-1669
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1021/ic034435+
Two homometallic complexes containing two and three ruthenium polypyridyl units linked by amino acid lysine (Lys) and the related dipeptide (LysLys) were synthesized and their electrochemical, spectroscopic, and electrochemiluminescence (ECL) properties were investigated. The electrochemical and photophysical data indicate that the two metal complexes largely retain the electronic properties of the reference compound for the separate ruthenium moieties in the two bridged complexes, [4-carboxypropyl-4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridine]bis(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) complex. The ECL studies, performed in aqueous media in the presence of tri-n-propylamine as co-reactant, show that the ECL intensity increases by 30% for the dinuclear and trinuclear complexes compared to the reference. Heterogeneous ECL immunoassay studies, performed on larger dendritic complexes containing up to eight ruthenium units, demonstrate that limitations due to the slow diffusion can easily be overcome by means of nanoparticle technology. In this case, the ECL signal is proportional to the number of ruthenium units. Multimetallic systems with several ruthenium centers may, however, undergo nonspecific bonding,to streptavidin-coated particles or to antibodies, thereby increasing the background ECL intensity and lowering the sensitivity of the immunoassay.