Rigid ferrocenophane and its metal complexes with transition and alkaline-earth metal ions
Cui, X., Delgado, R., Costa, J., Drew, M., Costa, P. J. and Félix, V. (2010) Rigid ferrocenophane and its metal complexes with transition and alkaline-earth metal ions. Polyhedron, 29 (6). pp. 1697-1705. ISSN 0277-5387
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1016/j.poly.2010.02.015
The rigid ferrocenophane, L-1, was synthesised by condensation of 1,1'-ferrocene dicarbaldehyde with trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane in high dilution at r.t. followed by reduction. When other experimental conditions were employed, the [6,6,6]ferrocenephane (L-2) was also obtained. Both compounds were characterised by single crystal X-ray crystallography. The protonation of L-1 and its metal complexation were evaluated by the effect on the electron-transfer process of the ferrocene (fc) unit of L-1 using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV) in anhydrous CH3CN solution and in 0.1 M (Bu4NPF6)-Bu-n as the supporting electrolyte. The electrochemical process of L-1 between 300 and 900 mV is complicated by amine oxidation. On the other hand, an anodic shift from the fc/fc(+) wave of L-1 of 249, 225, 81 and 61 mV was observed by formation of Zn2+, Ni2+, Pd2+ and Cu2+ complexes, respectively. Whereas Mg2+ and Ca2+ only have with L-1 weak interactions and they promote the acid-base equilibrium of L-1. This reveals that L-1 is an interesting molecular redox sensor for detection of Zn2+ and Ni2+, although the kinetics of the Zn2+ complex formation is much faster than that of the Ni2+ one. The X-ray crystal structure of [(PdLCl2)-Cl-1] was determined and showed a square-planar environment with Pd(II) and Fe(II) centres separated by 3.781(1) angstrom. The experimental anodic shifts were elucidated by DFT calculations on the [(MLCl2)-Cl-1] series and they are related to the nature of the HOMO of these complexes and a four-electron, two-orbital interaction.