Guanine specific binding at a DNA junction formed by d[CG(5-BrU)ACG]2 with a topoisomerase poison in the presence of Co2+Ions†,‡
Thorpe, J. H., Hobbs, J. R., Todd, A. K., Denny, W. A., Charlton, P. and Cardin, C. J. (2000) Guanine specific binding at a DNA junction formed by d[CG(5-BrU)ACG]2 with a topoisomerase poison in the presence of Co2+Ions†,‡. Biochemistry, 39 (49). pp. 15055-15061. ISSN 1520-4995
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1021/bi001749p
The structure of the duplex d[CG(5-BrU)ACG]2 bound to 9-bromophenazine-4-carboxamide has been solved through MAD phasing at 2.0 Å resolution. It shows an unexpected and previously unreported intercalation cavity stabilized by the drug and novel binding modes of Co2+ ions at certain guanine N7 sites. For the intercalation cavity the terminal cytosine is rotated to pair with the guanine of a symmetry-related duplex to create a pseudo-Holliday junction geometry, with two such cavities linked through the minor groove interactions of the N2/N3 guanine sites at an angle of 40°, creating a quadruplex-like structure. The mode of binding of the drug is shown to be disordered, with the major conformations showing the side chain bound to the N7 position of adjacent guanines. The other end of the duplex exhibits a terminal base fraying in the presence of Co2+ ions linking symmetry-related guanines, causing the helices to intertwine through the minor groove. The stabilization of the structure by the intercalating drug shows that this class of compound may bind to DNA junctions as well as duplex DNA or to strand-nicked DNA (‘hemi-intercalated'), as in the cleavable complex. This suggests a structural basis for the dual poisoning of topoisomerase I and II enzymes by this family of drugs.
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