Ontology supported competency system
To link to this article DOI: 10.1504/IJKL.2011.044539
Traditionally representation of competencies has been very difficult using computer-based techniques. This paper introduces competencies, how they are represented, and the related concept of competency frameworks and the difficulties in using traditional ontology techniques to formalise them. A “vaguely” formalised framework has been developed within the EU project TRACE and is presented. The framework can be used to represent different competencies and competency frameworks. Through a case study using an example from the IT sector, it is shown how these can be used by individuals and organisations to specify their individual competency needs. Furthermore it is described how these representations are used for comparisons between different specifications applying ontologies and ontology toolsets. The end result is a comparison that is not binary, but tertiary, providing “definite matches”, possible / partial matches, and “no matches” using a “traffic light” analogy.
Becta (2005) ‘ICT competences framework’, available at available at http://www.maximise- ict.co.uk/tech-competences.pdf (accessed on 1 August 2011). Boon, J. and Van der Klink, M.R. (2003) ‘Competencies: the triumph of a fuzzy concept’, International Journal of Human Resources Development and Management (IJHRDM), Vol. 3, No. 2, pp.125–137. CEN (2006) European ICT Skills Meta-Framework – State-of-the-Art Review, Clarification of the Realities, and Recommendations for Next Steps, CEN, Brussels. Commission of the European Communities (2005) On key competences for Lifelong Learning, Commission of the European Communities, Brussels. Commission of the European Communities (2006) On the Establishment of the European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning, Commission of the European Communities, Brussels. EIfEL (2005) European Competency Frameworks – TRACE Work Package I Report, TRACE and EIfEL, Champlost. EIfEL (2006) Feasibility of the O*NET KSAO Approach in Functional Analysis-Based Competency Frameworks in the Domains of e-Learning and Key Skills, TRACE and EIfEL, Champlost. Hardley, S. (1994) ‘On the use of a directed acyclic graph to represent a population of computer programs’, Proceeding of the First IEEE conference on Evolutionary Computation. 1, pp.154–159, IEEE, Orlando. Hoel, T. (2007) ‘The emergence of pragmatic community practice and specifications’, Seventh IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, pp.739–741, Conference Publishing Services, Japan. IEEE. (2007) Learning Technology Data Model for Reusable Competency Definitions, IEEE, New York. IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. (2002) IMS Reusable Definition of Competency or Educational Objective Specification, October, IMS Global Learning Consortium. Lundqvist, K.Ø., Williams, S. and Baker, K. (2006) Feasibility of the KSAO Approach in ICT Competency Frameworks, University of Reading, Reading. McGuinness, D.L. and Harmelen, F. (2004) OWL Web Ontology Language – Overview, W3C. Miller, G., Beckwith, R., Fellbaum, C., Gross, D. and Miller, K. (1990) ‘Introduction to WordNet: an online lexical database’, Internation Journal of Lexicography, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp.235–244. O*NET (2007) O*NET Online, available at http://www.onetonline.org/ (accessed on 1 August 2011). Ostyn, C. (2005) Competency Data Standards Resources, available at http://www.ostyn.com/rescompetency.htm (accessed on 19 December 2007). Ostyn, C. (2006) Proposed Draft Standard for Learning Technology -Simple Reusable Competency Map, 22 February, available at http://www.ostyn.com/standardswork/competency/ReusableCompMapProp.pdf (accessed on 10 November 2007). Scienter (2006) Report on O*NET Approach in European Context, Trace and Scienter, Bologna. Scienter Espana (2006) Report on Feasibility of the O*NET KSAO Approach in the European Context – Career Guidance Sector, Trace and Scienter, Granada. Stracke, C. (2006) ‘Interoperability and quality development in e-learning: overview and reference model for e-learning standards’, Proceedings of the Asia-Europe e-Learning Colloquy, Seoul. The Columbia Guide to Standard American English (1993) Wilson, K.G. (Ed.): Competence, Competency: The Columbia Guide to Standard American English. Walker, E. and Robson, R. (2003) ‘RCDEO to enter IEEE standardization process’, Letter to IEEE LTSC and RDCEO Communities, 3 October, IMS and LTSC. Winterton, J., Delamare-Le Deist, F. and Stringfellow, E. (2005) Typology of Knowledge, Skills and Competences: Clarification of the Concept and Prototype, Cedefop, Thessaloniki. Zerdahelyi, N.F. (2007) ‘JOSE Jobsearch’, Appendix, p.22, T. Consortium, Final Report, TRACE Consortium, Reading.
Repository Staff Only: item control page