Supranutritional selenium induces alterations in molecular targets related to energy metabolism in skeletal muscle and visceral adipose tissue of pigs
Pinto, A., Juniper, D., Sanil, M., Morgan, L., Clark, L., Sies, H., Rayman, M. and Steinbrenner, H. (2012) Supranutritional selenium induces alterations in molecular targets related to energy metabolism in skeletal muscle and visceral adipose tissue of pigs. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry. ISSN 0162-0134 (In Press)
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While selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for humans, epidemiological studies have raised concern that supranutritional Se intake may increase the risk to develop Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We aimed to determine the impact of Se at a dose and source frequently ingested by humans on markers of insulin sensitivity and signalling. Male pigs were fed either a Se-adequate (0.17 mg Se/kg) or a Se-supranutritional (0.50 mg Se/kg; high-Se) diet. After 16 weeks of intervention, fasting plasma insulin and cholesterol levels were non-significantly increased in the high-Se pigs, whereas fasting glucose concentrations did not differ between the two groups. In skeletal muscle of high-Se pigs, glutathione peroxidase activity was increased, gene expression of forkhead box O1 transcription factor and peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor- coactivator 1 were increased and gene expression of the glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase was decreased. In visceral adipose tissue of high-Se pigs, mRNA levels of sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 were increased, and the phosphorylation of Akt, AMP-activated kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinases was affected. In conclusion, dietary Se oversupply may affect expression and activity of proteins involved in energy metabolism in major insulin target tissues, though this is probably not sufficient to induce diabetes.