Effects of oxidised low density lipoprotein on dendritic cells: a possible immunoregulatory component of the atherogenic micro-environment?
Alderman, C. J. J., Bunyard, P. R., Chain, B. M., Foreman, J. C., Leake, D. and Katz, D. R. (2002) Effects of oxidised low density lipoprotein on dendritic cells: a possible immunoregulatory component of the atherogenic micro-environment? Cardiovascular Research, 55 (4). pp. 806-819. ISSN 0008-6363
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1016/S0008-6363(02)00447-9
Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between low density lipoprotein (LDL) and dendritic cell (DC) activation, based upon the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated modification of proteins that may be present in local DC microenvironments could be important as mediators of this activation. Although LDL are known to be oxidised in vivo, and taken up by macrophages during atherogenesis; their effect on DC has not been explored previously. Methods: Human DCs were prepared from peripheral blood monocytes using GM-CSF and IL-4. Plasma LDLs were isolated by sequential gradient centrifugation, oxidised in CuSO4, and oxidation arrested to yield mild, moderate and highly oxidised LDL forms. DCs exposed to these LDLs were investigated using combined phenotypic, functional (autologous T cell activation), morphological and viability assays. Results: Highly-oxidised LDL increased DC HLA-DR, CD40 and CD86 expression, corroborated by increased DC-induced T cell proliferation. Both native and oxidised LDL induced prominent DC clustering. However, high concentrations of highly-oxidised LDL inhibited DC function, due to increased DC apoptosis. Conclusions: This study supports the hypothesis that oxidised LDL are capable of triggering the transition from sentinel to messenger DC. Furthermore, the DC clustering–activation–apoptosis sequence in the presence of different LDL forms is consistent with a regulatory DC role in immunopathogenesis of atheroma. A sequence of initial accumulation of DC, increasing LDL oxidation, and DC-induced T cell activation, may explain why local breach of tolerance can occur. Above a threshold level, however, supervening DC apoptosis limits this, contributing instead to the central plaque core.