A wind tunnel model for quantifying fluxes in the urban boundary layer
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1023/A:1015555613672
Transport of pollution and heatout of streets into the boundary layer above is not currently understood and so fluxes cannot be quantified. Scalar concentration within the street is determined by the flux out of it and so quantifying fluxes for turbulent flow over a rough urban surface is essential. We have developed a naphthalene sublimation technique to measure transfer from a two-dimensional street canyon in a wind tunnel for the case of flow perpendicular to the street. The street was coated with naphthalene, which sublimes at room temperature, so that the vapour represented the scalar source. The transfer velocity wT relates the flux out of the canyon to the concentration within it and is shown to be linearly related to windspeed above the street. The dimensionless transfer coefficient wT/Uδ represents the ventilation efficiency of the canyon (here, wT is a transfer velocity,Uδ is the wind speed at the boundary-layer top). Observed values are between 1.5 and 2.7 ×10-3 and, for the case where H/W→0 (ratio of buildingheight to street width), values are in the same range as estimates of transfer from a flat plate, giving confidence that the technique yields accurate values for street canyon scalar transfer. wT/Uδ varies with aspect ratio (H/W), reaching a maximum in the wake interference regime (0.3 < H/W < 0.65). However, when upstream roughness is increased, the maximum in wT/Uδ reduces, suggesting that street ventilation is less sensitive to H/W when the flow is in equilibrium with the urban surface. The results suggest that using naphthalene sublimation with wind-tunnel models of urban surfaces can provide a direct measure of area-averaged scalar fluxes.