Low-energy ion flows into the magnetosphere
Lockwood, M. (1986) Low-energy ion flows into the magnetosphere. Advances in Space Research, 6 (3). pp. 63-77. ISSN 02731177
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1016/0273-1177(86)90318-2
Ion flows from the ionosphere into the magnetosphere fall into two main categories: cold (<1eV), “classical” polar wind and heated (>1eV), suprathermal ion outflows. A wealth of new understanding of these outflows has resulted from the Dynamics Explorer Mission. This review describes both the confirmation of the predicted classical polar wind as well as the revelation of a great variety of low-energy suprathermal outflows: the cleft ion fountain, the nightside auroral fountaion (X-events, toroids and field-aligned flows) and polar cap outflows. The main emphasis is placed on flows at energies below about 50eV, observed by the Retarding Ion Mass Spectrometer (RIMS) on board the Dynamics Explorer 1 satellite; limited comparisons are made with results from other instruments which sample different energy ranges.