Simple M-factor algorithm for improved estimation of the basic maximum usable frequency of radio waves reflected from the ionospheric F-region
Lockwood, M. (1983) Simple M-factor algorithm for improved estimation of the basic maximum usable frequency of radio waves reflected from the ionospheric F-region. IEE Proceedings F Communications, Radar and Signal Processing, 130 (4). pp. 296-302. ISSN 01437070
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1049/ip-f-1.1983.0049
The equations of Milsom are evaluated, giving the ground range and group delay of radio waves propagated via the horizontally stratified model ionosphere proposed by Bradley and Dudeney. Expressions for the ground range which allow for the effects of the underlying E- and F1-regions are used to evaluate the basic maximum usable frequency or M-factors for single F-layer hops. An algorithm for the rapid calculation of the M-factor at a given range is developed, and shown to be accurate to within 5%. The results reveal that the M(3000)F2-factor scaled from vertical-incidence ionograms using the standard URSI procedure can be up to 7.5% in error. A simple addition to the algorithm effects a correction to ionogram values to make these accurate to 0.5%.