Mean flow and turbulence statistics over groups of urban-like cubical obstacles
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Direct numerical simulations of turbulent flow over regular arrays of urban-like, cubical obstacles are reported. Results are analysed in terms of a formal spatial averaging procedure to enable interpretation of the flow within the arrays as a canopy flow, and of the flow above as a rough wall boundary layer. Spatial averages of the mean velocity, turbulent stresses and pressure drag are computed. The statistics compare very well with data from wind-tunnel experiments. Within the arrays the time-averaged flow structure gives rise to significant 'dispersive stress' whereas above the Reynolds stress dominates. The mean flow structure and turbulence statistics depend significantly on the layout of the cubes. Unsteady effects are important, especially in the lower canopy layer where turbulent fluctuations dominate over the mean flow.
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