Accessibility navigation


Effect of mastication on lipid bioaccessibility of almonds in a randomized human study and its implications for digestion kinetics, metabolizable energy, and postprandial lipemia

Grundy, M. M. L., Grassby, T., Mandalari, G., Waldron, K. W., Butterworth, P. J., Berry, S. E. E. and Ellis, P. R. (2015) Effect of mastication on lipid bioaccessibility of almonds in a randomized human study and its implications for digestion kinetics, metabolizable energy, and postprandial lipemia. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 101 (1). pp. 25-33. ISSN 0002-9165

[img]
Preview
Text (Open Access) - Published Version
· Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.
· Please see our End User Agreement before downloading.

887kB

It is advisable to refer to the publisher's version if you intend to cite from this work. See Guidance on citing.

To link to this item DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.114.088328

Abstract/Summary

Background: The particle size and structure of masticated almonds impact significantly on nutrient release (bioaccessibility) and digestion kinetics. Objectives: To quantify the effects of mastication on the bioaccessibility of intracellular lipid of almond tissue and examine microstructural characteristics of masticated almonds. Design: In a randomized, subject-blind, crossover trial, 17 healthy subjects chewed natural (NA) or roasted almonds (RA) on 4 separate mastication sessions. Particle size distributions (PSDs) of the expectorated boluses were measured using mechanical sieving and laser diffraction (primary outcome). The microstructure of masticated almonds, including the structural integrity of the cell walls (i.e. dietary fiber), was examined using microscopy. Lipid bioaccessibility was predicted using a theoretical model, based on almond particle size and cell dimensions, and then compared to empirically-derived release data. Results: Inter-subject variations (n=15, 2 subjects withdrew) in PSDs of both NA and RA samples were small (e.g. laser diffraction, CV = 12% and 9%, respectively). Significant differences in PSDs were found between these two almond forms (P < 0.05). A small proportion of lipid was released from ruptured cells on fractured surfaces of masticated particles, as predicted using the mathematical model (8.5% and 11.3% for NA and RA, respectively). This low level of lipid bioaccessibility is due to the high proportion (35-40%) of large particles (>500 µm) in masticated almonds. Microstructural examination of the almonds indicated that most intracellular lipid remained undisturbed in intact cells post-mastication. No adverse events were recorded. Conclusions: Following mastication, most of the almond cells remained intact with lipid encapsulated by cell walls. Thus, most of the lipid (>88%) in masticated almonds is not immediately bioaccessible and remains unavailable for digestion and absorption. The lipid encapsulation mechanism provides a convincing explanation for why almonds have a low metabolizable energy content and an attenuated impact on postprandial lipemia. Trial registration number; ISRCTN58438021.

Item Type:Article
Refereed:Yes
Divisions:Faculty of Life Sciences > School of Agriculture, Policy and Development > Food Production and Quality Division > Animal, Dairy and Food Chain Sciences (ADFCS)
ID Code:76972
Publisher:American Society for Nutrition

Downloads

Downloads per month over past year

University Staff: Request a correction | Centaur Editors: Update this record

Page navigation