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Evolutionary bi-stability in pathogen transmission mode

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van den Bosch, F., Fraaije, B. A., van den Berg, F. and Shaw, M. W. (2010) Evolutionary bi-stability in pathogen transmission mode. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, 277. pp. 1735-1742. ISSN 1471-2954

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To link to this article DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2009.2211

Abstract/Summary

Many pathogens transmit to new hosts by both infection (horizontal transmission) and transfer to the infected host's offspring (vertical transmission). These two transmission modes require speci®c adap- tations of the pathogen that can be mutually exclusive, resulting in a trade-off between horizontal and vertical transmission. We show that in mathematical models such trade-offs can lead to the simultaneous existence of two evolutionary stable states (evolutionary bi-stability) of allocation of resources to the two modes of transmission. We also show that jumping between evolutionary stable states can be induced by gradual environmental changes. Using quantitative PCR-based estimates of abundance in seed and vege- tative parts, we show that the pathogen of wheat, Phaeosphaeria nodorum, has jumped between two distinct states of transmission mode twice in the past 160 years, which, based on published evidence, we interpret as adaptation to environmental change. The ®nding of evolutionary bi-stability has impli- cations for human, animal and other plant diseases. An ill-judged change in a disease control programme could cause the pathogen to evolve a new, and possibly more damaging, combination of transmission modes. Similarly, environmental changes can shift the balance between transmission modes, with adverse effects on human, animal and plant health.

Item Type:Article
Refereed:Yes
Divisions:Interdisciplinary centres and themes > Centre for Food Security
Interdisciplinary centres and themes > Walker Institute for Climate System Research
Faculty of Life Sciences > School of Biological Sciences > Environmental Biology
ID Code:7904
Uncontrolled Keywords:evolutionary stable strategy; Phaeosphaeria nodorum; real-time PCR; adaptive dynamics; animal disease; plant disease
Publisher:The Royal Society

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