Heat tolerance in groundnut
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1016/S0378-4290(02)00155-7
Tolerance to high soil and air temperature during the reproductive phase is an important component of adaptation to and and semi-arid cropping environments in groundnut. Between 10 and 22 genotypes were screened for tolerance to high air and soil temperature in controlled environments. To assess tolerance to high soil temperature, 10 genotypes were grown from start of podding to harvest at ambient (28 degrees) and high (38 degreesC) soil temperatures, and crop growth rate (CGR), pod growth rate (PGR) and partitioning (ratio PGR:CGR) measured. To assess tolerance to high air temperature during two key stages-microsporogenesis (3-6 days before flowering, DBF) and flowering, fruit-set was measured in two experiments. In the first experiment, 12 genotypes were exposed to short (3-6 days) episodes of high (38 degreesC) day air temperature at 6 DBF and at flowering. In the second experiment, 22 genotypes were exposed to 40 degreesC day air temperature for I day at 6 DBF, 3 DBF or at flowering. Cellular membrane thermostability (relative injury, RI) was also measured in these 22 genotypes. There was considerable variation among genotypes in response to high temperature, whether assessed by growth rates, fruit-set or RI. Pod weight at high soil temperature was associated with variation in CGR rather than partitioning. Flowering was more sensitive to high air temperature than microsporogenesis. Genotypes tolerant to high air temperature at microsporogenesis were not necessarily tolerant at flowering, and nor was tolerance correlated with RI. Six genotypes (796, 55-437, ICG 1236, ICGV 86021, lCGV 87281 and ICGV 92121) were identified as heat tolerant based on their performance in all tests. These experiments have shown that groundnut genotypes can be easily screened for reproductive tolerance to high air and soil temperature and that several sources of heat tolerance are available in groundnut germplasm. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.