Adaptation and yield of pigeonpea in different environments in Tanzania
Mligo, J. K. and Craufurd, P. Q. (2005) Adaptation and yield of pigeonpea in different environments in Tanzania. Field Crops Research, 94 (1). pp. 43-53. ISSN 0378-4290
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1016/j.fcr.2004.11.009
Pigeonpea is grown in wide range of cropping systems and environments, both in East Africa and internationally. An important feature of adaptation to these diverse systems and environments is the timing of flowering and maturity. Most traditional cultivars grown in Tanzania are medium to late flowering types (> 150 days), although extra-early flowering cultivars are now available. The aim of the present investigation was to measure biomass (BY) and seed (SY) yield of a set of phenologically diverse cultivars to determine their adaptation to contrasting environments in Tanzania. Ten cultivars, from extra-early (60 days) to late (> 180 days) flowering, were planted at six locations varying in mean temperature, photoperiod and rainfall. Days to flowering (DTF) and maturity, and above-ground BY and SY at maturity, were measured. A stress index (ETr:ETm ratio, 100 = no stress) was computed for each site. Rainfall and the stress index at the different sites varied from 322 to 1297 mm and 57 to 89, respectively. Among cultivars, DTF varied from 55 to 320 days, the stress index from 3 to 98, BY from 700 to 25,000 kg ha(-1), and SY from 0 to 4000 kg ha(-1). The highest yielding environment was at Selian, where mean temperatures were favourable (19 degrees C) and no stress occurred. At all sites there was an optimum DTF, which for SY varied from < 100 to 150 days. The best adapted cultivars were ICP 7035, ICPL 90094, Kat 50 and QP37, which were all medium flowering (c. 150 day) types. Extra-early cultivars such as ICPL 86005 also showed considerable potential, especially in short-season environments. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.