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"Below the threshold" cyber operations: the countermeasures response option and international law

Schmitt, M. N. (2014) "Below the threshold" cyber operations: the countermeasures response option and international law. Virginia Journal of International Law, 54 (3). pp. 697-732. ISSN 0042-6571

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Abstract/Summary

The article examines the international law governing State responses to cyber operations that do not rise to the level of an armed attack under the law of self-defense. Once the operations reach that level, forceful responses are, in certain circumstances, permitted. However, it is generally accepted that force, whether kinetic or cyber in nature, may not be employed in response to operations of lesser severity. Instead, the State is limited to acts in retorsion (unfriendly but lawful) or countermeasures. Countermeasures, which comprise acts that would be unlawful but for the unlawful actions of the other State, are subject to significant conditions and limitations. The article examines them in the cyber context.

Item Type:Article
Refereed:Yes
Divisions:No Reading authors. Back catalogue items
Faculty of Arts, Humanities and Social Science > School of Law
ID Code:89821
Publisher:University of Virginia School of Law

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