Importance of mycotoxins in food and feed in India
Waliyar, F., Reddy, S.V., Subramaniam, K., Reddy, T.Y., Rama Devi, K., Craufurd, P.Q. and Wheeler, T.R. (2003) Importance of mycotoxins in food and feed in India. Aspects of Applied Biology, 68. pp. 147-154.
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Various food and feed samples including groundnut seed, maize, sorghum, soyabean cake, groundnut cake, cotton cake, poultry feed, buffalo milk, cow milk and milk powders were collected from farmers' fields, farmer's stores, oil millers storage, traders' storage, retail shops and supermarkets. More than 2000 samples were analysed by ELISA and most of the commodities, with the exception of sorghum seed, contained high levels of aflatoxin. Groundnut cake was one of the major cattle feed ingredients in the peri-urban area of Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh, India) and >75% of the samples contained >100 µg/kg aflatoxin, leading to a high level of aflatoxin M1, in milk samples. Strategies to reduce aflatoxin levels (especially in groundnut) by management interventions at preharvest, harvest and storage, are discussed.