Accessibility navigation

How cultural competence is conceptualised, developed and delivered in pharmacy education: a systematic review

Jarar, R. ORCID:, Lim, R. ORCID:, Richardson, C. L., Naqvi, A. A. ORCID:, Rathbone, A. P. and Lau, W. M. (2023) How cultural competence is conceptualised, developed and delivered in pharmacy education: a systematic review. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy. ISSN 2210-7711

Text (Open Access) - Published Version
· Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.
· Please see our End User Agreement before downloading.

[img] Text - Accepted Version
· Restricted to Repository staff only


It is advisable to refer to the publisher's version if you intend to cite from this work. See Guidance on citing.

To link to this item DOI: 10.1007/s11096-023-01644-3


Background: It is important to have a pharmacy workforce that is culturally competent to recognise a patient’s health beliefs to improve medication adherence and reduce poor treatment outcomes. Aim: This systematic review aimed to identify, critically appraise and summarise how cultural competency is conceptualised, developed and embedded in pre-qualification pharmacy education. Method: Medline, Scopus, PsychInfo, Web of Knowledge, CINAHL, and Embase databases were searched for relevant papers published in English between January 2012 and December 2021 following PRISMA guidelines. Data from included papers were thematically analysed. Educational quality of papers was appraised using the GREET criteria. This systematic review was registered on PROSPERO, CRD42021295875. Results: The review included 47 papers (46 studies) with 18 papers meeting ≥ 9 points on the GREET criteria thus considered of good educational quality. 40 papers focused on educational interventions implemented to pharmacy students only, the remaining included students from different health disciplines. Half of the educational interventions focused on cultural competence in general. Most educational interventions lasted over a week and 21 were compulsory. Cultural competence conceptualisation varied; a focus on knowledge about different cultures or on culturally competent behaviours or a continuum with knowledge at one end and behaviour at the other. Conclusion: There is variation in how cultural competence is embedded, in pharmacy programmes, which could be a reflection of the differences in how educators conceptualised cultural competence. Further research is needed to develop a unified understanding of the meaning of cultural competence and how it can be embedded in pharmacy education.

Item Type:Article
Divisions:Life Sciences > School of Chemistry, Food and Pharmacy > School of Pharmacy > Pharmacy Practice Research Group
ID Code:113200


Downloads per month over past year

University Staff: Request a correction | Centaur Editors: Update this record

Page navigation