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A new set of orthogonal patterns in weather and climate: Optimally interpolated patterns.

Hannachi, A. (2008) A new set of orthogonal patterns in weather and climate: Optimally interpolated patterns. Journal of Climate, 21 (24). pp. 6724-6738. ISSN 1520-0442

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To link to this item DOI: 10.1175/2008JCLI2328.1


A new spectral-based approach is presented to find orthogonal patterns from gridded weather/climate data. The method is based on optimizing the interpolation error variance. The optimally interpolated patterns (OIP) are then given by the eigenvectors of the interpolation error covariance matrix, obtained using the cross-spectral matrix. The formulation of the approach is presented, and the application to low-dimension stochastic toy models and to various reanalyses datasets is performed. In particular, it is found that the lowest-frequency patterns correspond to largest eigenvalues, that is, variances, of the interpolation error matrix. The approach has been applied to the Northern Hemispheric (NH) and tropical sea level pressure (SLP) and to the Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST). Two main OIP patterns are found for the NH SLP representing respectively the North Atlantic Oscillation and the North Pacific pattern. The leading tropical SLP OIP represents the Southern Oscillation. For the Indian Ocean SST, the leading OIP pattern shows a tripole-like structure having one sign over the eastern and north- and southwestern parts and an opposite sign in the remaining parts of the basin. The pattern is also found to have a high lagged correlation with the Niño-3 index with 6-months lag.

Item Type:Article
Divisions:Science > School of Mathematical, Physical and Computational Sciences > Department of Meteorology
ID Code:2011
Uncontrolled Keywords:principal component analysis; tropical indian-ocean; surface-temperature; cautionary note; oscillation patterns; long-memory; pacific; eofs; variability; decomposition
Publisher:American Meteorological Society

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