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In vivo and in silico characterization of apocynin in reducing organ oxidative stress: a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study

Liu, F., Fan, L. M., Michael, N. and Li, J.-M. ORCID: (2020) In vivo and in silico characterization of apocynin in reducing organ oxidative stress: a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study. Pharmacology Research & Perspectives, 8 (4). e00635. ISSN 2052-1707

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To link to this item DOI: 10.1002/prp2.635


Apocynin has been widely used in vivo as a Nox2-contaninig NADPH oxidase inhibitor. However, its time-dependent tissue distribution and inhibition on organ reactive oxygen species (ROS) production remained unclear. In this study, we examined apocynin pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (PKPD) after iv injection (bolus, 5 mg/kg) of mice (CD1, 12-week). Apocynin was detected using a HPLC coupled to a linear ion-trap tandem mass spectrometer. Apocynin peak concentrations were detected in plasma at 1 min (5494±400 ng/mL) (t1/2=0.05 h, clearance=7.76 L/h/kg), in urine at 15 min (14942±5977 ng/mL), in liver at 5 min (2853±35 ng/g), in heart at 5 min (3161±309 ng/g) and in brain at 1 min (4603±208 ng/g) after iv injection. These were accompanied with reduction of ROS production in the liver, heart and brain homogenates. Diapocynin was not detected in these samples. Therapeutic effect of apocynin was examined using a mouse model (C57BL/6J) of high-fat diet (HFD, 16 weeks)-induced obesity and accelerated aging. Apocynin (5 mM) was supplied in drinking water during the HFD period and was detected at the end of treatment in the brain (5369±1612 ng/g), liver (4818±1340 ng/g) and heart (1795±1487 ng/g) along with significant reductions of ROS production in these organs. In conclusion, apocynin PKPD is characterized by a short half-life, rapid clearance, good distribution and inhibition of ROS production in major organs. Diapocynin is not a metabolite of apocynin in vivo. Apocynin crosses easily the blood-brain barrier and reduces brain oxidative stress associated with metabolic disorders and aging.

Item Type:Article
Divisions:Interdisciplinary centres and themes > Institute for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research (ICMR)
Life Sciences > School of Biological Sciences > Biomedical Sciences
ID Code:92150


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