Effects of enhanced consumption of fruit and vegetables on plasma antioxidant status and oxidative resistance of LDL in smokers supplemented with fish oil
Roberts, W.G., Gordon, M.H. and Walker, A.F. (2003) Effects of enhanced consumption of fruit and vegetables on plasma antioxidant status and oxidative resistance of LDL in smokers supplemented with fish oil. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 57 (10). pp. 1303-1310. ISSN 0954-3007
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To link to this item DOI: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601692
Objective: To determine whether consumption of five portions of fruit and vegetables per day reduces the enhancement of oxidative stress induced by consumption of fish oil. Subjects: A total of 18 free-living healthy smoking volunteers, aged 18-63 y, were recruited by posters and e-mail in The University of Reading, and by leaflets in local shops. Design: A prospective study. Setting: Hugh Sinclair Unit of Human Nutrition, School of Food Biosciences, The University of Reading, Whiteknights PO Box 226, Reading RG6 6AP, UK. Intervention: All subjects consumed a daily supplement of 4 x 1 g fish oil capsules for 9 weeks. After 3 weeks, they consumed an additional five portions of fruits and vegetables per day, and then they returned to their normal diet for the last 3 weeks of the study. Fasting blood samples were taken at the ends of weeks 0, 3, 6 and 9. Results: The plasma concentrations of ascorbic acid, lutein, beta-cryptoxanthin, alpha-carotene and beta-carotene all significantly increased when fruit and vegetable intake was enhanced (P<0.05). Plasma concentrations of α-tocopherol, retinol and uric acid did not change significantly during the period of increased fruit and vegetable consumption. Plasma oxidative stability, assessed by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, also increased from weeks 3-6 (P<0.001) but not in association with increases in measured antioxidants. Lag phase before oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) significantly decreased in the first 3 weeks of the study, reflecting the incorporation of EPA and DHA into LDL (P<0.0001). Subsequent enhanced fruit and vegetable consumption significantly reduced the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation (P<0.005). Conclusion: Fish oil reduced the oxidative stability of plasma and LDL, but the effects were partially offset by the increased consumption of fruit and vegetables.