Calcium removal from milk by ion exchange
Lin, M.J., Grandison, A., Chryssanthou, X., Goodwin, C., Tsioulpas, A., Koliandris, A. and Lewis, M. (2006) Calcium removal from milk by ion exchange. Milchwissenschaft-Milk Science International, 61 (4). pp. 370-374. ISSN 0026-3788
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Calcium removal, using Duolite C433 ion exchange resin, was faster from permeate than from milk. Almost all calcium could be removed, suggesting a fairly rapid conversion from both soluble calcium phosphate and from micellar calcium to ionic calcium. Calcium reduction from milk is accompanied by an increase in pH, a reduction in ionic calcium, an increase in ethanol stability and an increase in the rennet coagulation time. There is a gradual increase in the average casein micelle size with calcium removal, up to a point where the micelle size increases dramatically. Zeta potential becomes more negative with calcium removal. At higher levels of calcium removal, the changes are not reversible, on reducing pH to its original value. For goat's milk, over the range 0-20% total calcium removal, relatively small reductions in total calcium gave rise to proportionally larger reductions in ionic calcium in a ratio of about 1:3.2.