Vacuum-induced bubble formation in liquid-tempered chocolate
Haedelt, J., Pyle, D.L., Beckett, S.T. and Niranjan, K. (2005) Vacuum-induced bubble formation in liquid-tempered chocolate. Journal of Food Science, 70 (2). E159-E164. ISSN 0022-1147
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To link to this item DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2005.tb07090.x
Bubble inclusion is one of the fastest growing operations practiced in the food industry. A variety of aerated foods is currently available in supermarkets, and newer products are emerging all the time. This paper aims to combine knowledge on chocolate aeration with studies performed on bubble formation and dispersion characteristics. More specifically, we have investigated bubble formation induced by applying vacuum. Experimental methods to determine gas hold-up (volume fraction of air), bubble section distributions along specific planes, and chocolate rheological properties are presented. This study concludes that decreasing pressures elevate gas hold-up values due to an increase in the number of bubble nuclei being formed and release of a greater volume of dissolved gases. Furthermore, bubbles are observed to be larger at lower pressures for a set amount of gas because the internal pressure needs to be in equilibrium with the surrounding pressures. Temperature-induced changes to the properties of the chocolate have less of an effect on bubble formation. On the other hand, when different fats and emulsifiers are added to a standard chocolate recipe, milk fat was found to increase, significantly, the gas hold-up values and the mean bubble-section diameters. It is hypothesized that this behavior is related to the way milk fats, which contain different fatty acids to cocoa butter, crystallize and influence the setting properties of the final product. It is highlighted that apparent viscosity values at low shear rate, as well as setting behavior, play an important role in terms of bubble formation and entrainment.