The effect of free Ca2+ on the heat stability and other characteristics of low-heat skim milk powder
Faka, M., Lewis, M. J., Grandison, A. S. and Deeth, H. (2009) The effect of free Ca2+ on the heat stability and other characteristics of low-heat skim milk powder. International Dairy Journal, 19 (6-7). pp. 386-392. ISSN 0958-6946
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To link to this item DOI: 10.1016/j.idairyj.2008.12.006
Low-heat skim milk powder (SMP), reconstituted to 25% total solids, was found to have poor heat stability. This could be improved by reducing the free Ca2+ concentration to 1.14 mm, or lower, by the addition of either Amberlite IR-120 ion-exchange resin in its sodium form or tri-sodium citrate in skim milk prior to evaporation and spray drying. Reduction in Ca2+ concentration was accompanied by increases in pH, particle size, and kinematic viscosity, and by a reduction in zeta-potential and changes in colour. In-container sterilisation of the reconstituted powder increased particle size, zeta-potential, kinematic viscosity and a* and b* values. However. Ca2+ concentration, pH and whiteness decreased. This study elucidated the importance of Ca2+ concentration and pH on heat stability of low-heat SMP, suggesting that Ca2+ concentration and pH in bulk milk are useful indicators for ensuring that spray dried milk powder has good heat stability. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.