High pressure induced water uptake characteristics of Thai glutinous rice
Ahromrit, A., Ledward, D.A. and Niranjan, K. (2006) High pressure induced water uptake characteristics of Thai glutinous rice. Journal of Food Engineering, 72 (3). pp. 225-233. ISSN 0260-8774
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2004.11.013
Glutinous rice (or sticky rice) has to be soaked in water over an extended period of time before cooking. Soaking provides some of the water needed for starch gelatinisation to occur during cooking. The extent of water uptake during soaking is known to be influenced by temperature. This paper explores the use of very high pressures up to 600 MPa to accelerate water uptake kinetics during soaking. Changes occurring in length, diameter and moisture content were determined as a function of soaking time, pressure and temperature. The results show that length and diameter are positively correlated with all three parameters. However, the expansion ratios are not very high: the maximum length expansion ratio observed was 1.2, while the maximum diameter expansion ratio was 1. 1. Given these low values, it was possible to model water uptake kinetics by using the well-known Fickian model applied to a finite cylinder, assuming uniform average dimensions and effective diffusion coefficient. The results showed that the overall rates of water uptake and the equilibrium moisture content increased with pressure and temperature. The effective diffusion coefficient, on the other hand, did not follow the same trend. Temperature influenced the effective diffusion coefficient below 300 MPa, but had a marginal effect at higher pressures. Moreover, the effective diffusion coefficient increased with temperature between 20 and 50 degrees C, but dropped at higher temperatures. This drop can be attributed to the gelatinisation of starch, which restricts the transport of water. Regardless, it is possible to increase the quantity of water absorbed by rice and the rate at which it is absorbed, by using high pressures and temperatures. (c) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.