The phytocannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin modulates inhibitory neurotransmission in the cerebellum
Ma, Y.-L., Weston, S.E. , Whalley, B.J. and Stephens, G.J. (2008) The phytocannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin modulates inhibitory neurotransmission in the cerebellum. British Journal of Pharmacology, 154 (1). pp. 204-215. ISSN 0007-1188
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1038/bjp.2008.57
Background and purpose: The phytocannabinoid Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin (Delta(9)-THCV) has been reported to exhibit a diverse pharmacology; here, we investigate functional effects of Delta(9)-THCV, extracted from Cannabis sativa, using electrophysiological techniques to define its mechanism of action in the CNS. Experimental approach: Effects of Delta(9)-THCV and synthetic cannabinoid agents on inhibitory neurotransmission at interneurone-Purkinje cell (IN-PC) synapses were correlated with effects on spontaneous PC output using single-cell and multi-electrode array (MEA) electrophysiological recordings respectively, in mouse cerebellar brain slices in vitro. Key results: The cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN55) decreased miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current (mIPSC) frequency at IN-PC synapses. WIN55-induced inhibition was reversed by Delta(9)-THCV, and also by the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251; Delta(9)-THCV or AM251 acted to increase mIPSC frequency beyond basal values. When applied alone, Delta(9)-THCV, AM251 or rimonabant increased mIPSC frequency. Pre-incubation with Delta(9)-THCV blocked WIN55-induced inhibition. In MEA recordings, WIN55 increased PC spike firing rate; Delta(9)-THCV and AM251 acted in the opposite direction to decrease spike firing. The effects of Delta(9)-THCV and WIN55 were attenuated by the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline methiodide. Conclusions and implications: We show for the first time that Delta(9)-THCV acts as a functional CB1 receptor antagonist in the CNS to modulate inhibitory neurotransmission at IN-PC synapses and spontaneous PC output. Delta(9)-THCV- and AM251-induced increases in mIPSC frequency beyond basal levels were consistent with basal CB1 receptor activity. WIN55-induced increases in PC spike firing rate were consistent with synaptic disinhibition; whilst Delta(9)-THCV-and AM251-induced decreases in spike firing suggest a mechanism of PC inhibition.