Extracts of tropical African spices are active against Plutella xylostella
Ntonifor, N. N., Mueller-Harvey, I. and Brown, R. H. (2010) Extracts of tropical African spices are active against Plutella xylostella. Food, Agriculture & Environment, 8 (2). pp. 498-502. ISSN 1459-0255
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Extracts from Piper guineense, Aframomum melegueta, Aframomum citratum and Afrostyrax kamerunensis were investigated for their antifeedant, lethal and developmental effects against Plutella xylostella larvae through laboratory dual-choice tests and topical application. Water and ethanol extracts of P. guineense were dose-dependent antifeedants at concentrations ≥300 and 500 ppm, respectively, whilst methanol extracts required ≥1,000 ppm. Methanol and hexane extracts of A. melegueta acted at ≥100 ppm and water extracts at ≥300 ppm, but ethanol extracts were deterring feeding only slightly at ≥1,000 ppm. Hexane and methanol extracts of A. citratum inhibited feeding at ≥300 ppm and water extracts did so at ≥500 ppm. None of the Afrostyrax kamerunensis extracts deterred feeding at any of the concentrations tested. No mortality was observed at any of the concentrations after topical application of the extracts on the larvae. However, the effects on larval development varied with extract concentration and larval age. Ingestion of the water and ethanol extracts of P. guineense caused 100% mortality of second instars at ≥100 ppm two to three days after infestation (DAI). Methanol and water extracts of A. melegueta and A. citratum, respectively, achieved ≥80% mortality of larvae at concentrations of ≥500 ppm and ≥1,000 ppm, respectively. With third instars, the mortalities were significantly lower; however, the P. guineense water or ethanol extracts caused 100% mortality two to four DAI. Larvae that survived till pupation had significantly longer larval periods compared with the control after application of A. melegueta extracts. We concluded that potent extracts from Aframomum melegueta, Aframomum citratum and especially P. guineense could be used as complementary measures in the management of P. xylostella by subsistence farmers.