Effect of linseed oil and fish oil alone or as an equal mixture of ruminal fatty acid metabolism in growing steers fed maize silage-based diets
Shingfield, K. L., Lee, M. R. F., Humphries, D. J., Scollan, N. D., Toivonen, V., Beever, D. E. and Reynolds, C. K. (2011) Effect of linseed oil and fish oil alone or as an equal mixture of ruminal fatty acid metabolism in growing steers fed maize silage-based diets. Journal of Animal Science, 89 (11). pp. 3728-3741. ISSN 1525-3163
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To link to this article DOI: 10.2527/jas.2011-4047
Based on the potential benefits to human health there is interest in increasing 18:3n-3, 20:5n-3, 22:6n-6, and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in ruminant foods. Four Aberdeen Angus steers (406 ± 8.2 kg BW) fitted with rumen and duodenal cannulae were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment with 21 d periods to examine the potential of fish oil (FO) and linseed oil (LO) in the diet to increase ruminal outflow of trans-11 18:1 and total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in growing cattle. Treatments consisted of a control diet (60:40; forage:concentrate ratio, on a DM basis, respectively) based on maize silage, or the same basal ration containing 30 g/kg DM of FO, LO or a mixture (1:1, w/w) of FO and LO (LFO). Diets were offered as total mixed rations and fed at a rate of 85 g DM/kg BW0.75/d. Oils had no effect (P = 0.52) on DM intake. Linseed oil had no effect (P > 0.05) on ruminal pH or VFA concentrations, while FO shifted rumen fermentation towards propionate at the expense of acetate. Compared with the control, LO increased (P < 0.05) 18:0, cis 18:1 (Δ9, 12-15), trans 18:1 (Δ4-9, 11-16), trans 18:2, geometric isomers of ∆9,11, ∆11,13, and ∆13,15 CLA, trans-8,cis-10 CLA, trans-10,trans-12 CLA, trans-12,trans-14 CLA, and 18:3n-3 flow at the duodenum. Inclusion of FO in the diet resulted in higher (P < 0.05) flows of cis-9 16:1, trans 16:1 (Δ6-13), cis 18:1 (Δ9, 11, and 13), trans 18:1 (Δ6-15), trans 18:2, 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3, and 22:6n-3, and lowered (P < 0.001) 18:0 at the duodenum relative to the control. For most fatty acids at the duodenum responses to LFO were intermediate of FO and LO. However, LFO resulted in higher (P = 0.04) flows of total trans 18:1 than LO and increased (P < 0.01) trans-6 16:1 and trans-12 18:1 at the duodenum compared with FO or LO. Biohydrogenation of cis-9 18:1 and 18:2n-6 in the rumen was independent of treatment, but both FO and LO increased (P < 0.001) the extent of 18:3n-3 biohydrogenation compared with the control. Ruminal 18:3n-3 biohydrogenation was higher (P < 0.001) for LO and LFO than FO, while biohydrogenation of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in the rumen was marginally lower (P = 0.05) for LFO than FO. In conclusion, LO and FO at 30 g/kg DM altered the biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids in the rumen causing an increase in the flow of specific intermediates at the duodenum, but the potential of these oils fed alone or as a mixture to increase n-3 PUFA at the duodenum in cattle appears limited.