Prediction of coagulation properties, titratable acidity and pH of bovine milk using mid-infrared spectroscopy
De Marchi, M., Fagan, C. C., O'Donnell, C. P., Cecchinato, A., Dal Zotto, R., Cassandro, M., Penasa, M. and Bittante, G. (2009) Prediction of coagulation properties, titratable acidity and pH of bovine milk using mid-infrared spectroscopy. Journal of Dairy Science, 92 (1). pp. 423-432. ISSN 0022-0302
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To link to this article DOI: 10.3168/jds.2008-1163
This study investigated the potential application of mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR 4,000–900 cm−1) for the determination of milk coagulation properties (MCP), titratable acidity (TA), and pH in Brown Swiss milk samples (n = 1,064). Because MCP directly influence the efficiency of the cheese-making process, there is strong industrial interest in developing a rapid method for their assessment. Currently, the determination of MCP involves time-consuming laboratory-based measurements, and it is not feasible to carry out these measurements on the large numbers of milk samples associated with milk recording programs. Mid-infrared spectroscopy is an objective and nondestructive technique providing rapid real-time analysis of food compositional and quality parameters. Analysis of milk rennet coagulation time (RCT, min), curd firmness (a30, mm), TA (SH°/50 mL; SH° = Soxhlet-Henkel degree), and pH was carried out, and MIR data were recorded over the spectral range of 4,000 to 900 cm−1. Models were developed by partial least squares regression using untreated and pretreated spectra. The MCP, TA, and pH prediction models were improved by using the combined spectral ranges of 1,600 to 900 cm−1, 3,040 to 1,700 cm−1, and 4,000 to 3,470 cm−1. The root mean square errors of cross-validation for the developed models were 2.36 min (RCT, range 24.9 min), 6.86 mm (a30, range 58 mm), 0.25 SH°/50 mL (TA, range 3.58 SH°/50 mL), and 0.07 (pH, range 1.15). The most successfully predicted attributes were TA, RCT, and pH. The model for the prediction of TA provided approximate prediction (R2 = 0.66), whereas the predictive models developed for RCT and pH could discriminate between high and low values (R2 = 0.59 to 0.62). It was concluded that, although the models require further development to improve their accuracy before their application in industry, MIR spectroscopy has potential application for the assessment of RCT, TA, and pH during routine milk analysis in the dairy industry. The implementation of such models could be a means of improving MCP through phenotypic-based selection programs and to amend milk payment systems to incorporate MCP into their payment criteria.