Interactions of surfactants (edge activators) and skin penetration enhancers with liposomes
El Maghraby, G. M. M., Williams, A. C. and Barry, B. W. . (2004) Interactions of surfactants (edge activators) and skin penetration enhancers with liposomes. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 276 (1-2). pp. 143-161. ISSN 0378-5173
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To link to this item DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2004.02.024
Incorporating edge activators (surfactants) into liposomes was shown previously to improve estradiol vesicular skin delivery; this phenomenon was concentration dependent with low or high concentrations being less effective. Replacing surfactants with limonene produced similar behaviour, but oleic acid effects were linear with concentration up to 16% (w/w), beyond which it was incompatible with the phospholipid. This present study thus employed high sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry to probe interactions of additives with ipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) membranes to explain such results. Cholesterol was included as an example of a membrane stabiliser that removed the DPPC pre-transition and produced vesicles with a higher transition temperature (Tm). Surfactants also removed the lipid pre-transition but reduced Tm and co-operativity of the main peak. At higher concentrations, surfactants also formed new species, possibly mixed micelles with a lower Tm. The formation of mixed micelles may explain reduced skin delivery from liposomes containing high concentrations of surfactants. Limonene did not remove the pre-transition but reduced Tm and co-operativity of the main peak, apparently forming new species at high concentrations, again correlating with vesicular delivery of estradiol. Oleic acid obliterated the pre-transition. The Tm and the co-operativity of the main peak were reduced with oleic acid concentrations up to 33.2 mol%, above which there was no further change. At higher concentrations, phase separation was evident, conﬁrming previous skin transport ﬁndings.