Intracellular or intercellular localization of the polar pathway of penetration across stratum corneum
Sznitowska, M., Janicki, S. and Williams, A. C. (1998) Intracellular or intercellular localization of the polar pathway of penetration across stratum corneum. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 87 (9). pp. 1109-1114. ISSN 1520-6017
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1021/js980018w
A pharmacokinetic hypothesis of stratum corneum with two parallel pathways, lipophilic and porous hydrophilic, is not well documented yet. Still questionable is the localization of the pores, and the present experiments were designed to elucidate the contribution of extracellular lipids and intracellular keratin to the structure of this pathway. Percutaneous penetration of baclofen, a model zwitterion, was studied in vitro using human cadaver skin. Aqueous or ethanolic saturated solutions of the drug (Cs = 4.6 and 0.4 mg/ mL, respectively) were applied on the skin that was pretreated with: methanol/chloroform (Me/Ch) or acetone-chloroform (Ac/Ch) (1:1) mixtures, or with these solvents followed by 0.2% solution of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). As controls, baclofen penetration through the intact full-thickness skin was determined, and the fluxes were 0.18 ±0.08 and 0.14 ±0.07 µg/cm2/h for aqueous and ethanolic solutions, respectively. When Me/Ch was used for 1 h, an expected increase of the penetration was observed, but the lag time, Tlag, was still nearly 20 h. When the less polar mixture, Ac/Ch, was used, no flux enhancement was observed, and with ethanol as the vehicle, decreased penetration was even noted. No effect on baclofen penetration was observed when SLS was used for 1 h after delipidization of the skin was done with either the Me/Ch or Ac/Ch mixture. The results suggest that the polar pathway may be located intercellularly and comprises aqueous regions surrounded by polar lipids, which create the walls of such microchannels.