Lactobacilli antagonize the growth, motility, and adherence of brachyspira pilosicoli: a potential intervention against avian intestinal spirochetosis
Mappley, L. J., Tchorzewska, M. A., Cooley, W. A., Woodward, M. J. and La Ragione, R. M. (2011) Lactobacilli antagonize the growth, motility, and adherence of brachyspira pilosicoli: a potential intervention against avian intestinal spirochetosis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 77 (15). pp. 5402-5411. ISSN 0099-2240
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1128/aem.00185-11
Avian intestinal spirochetosis (AIS) results from the colonization of the ceca and colorectum of poultry by pathogenic Brachyspira species. The number of cases of AIS has increased since the 2006 European Union ban on the use of antibiotic growth promoters, which, together with emerging antimicrobial resistance in Brachyspira, has driven renewed interest in alternative intervention strategies. Probiotics have been reported as protecting livestock against infection with common enteric pathogens, and here we investigate which aspects of the biology of Brachyspira they antagonize in order to identify possible interventions against AIS. The cell-free supernatants (CFS) of two Lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus reuteri LM1 and Lactobacillus salivarius LM2, suppressed the growth of Brachyspira pilosicoli B2904 in a pH-dependent manner. In in vitro adherence and invasion assays with HT29-16E three-dimensional (3D) cells and in a novel avian cecal in vitro organ culture (IVOC) model, the adherence and invasion of B. pilosicoli in epithelial cells were reduced significantly by the presence of lactobacilli (P < 0.001). In addition, live and heat-inactivated lactobacilli inhibited the motility of B. pilosicoli, and electron microscopic observations indicated that contact between the lactobacilli and Brachyspira was crucial in inhibiting both adherence and motility. These data suggest that motility is essential for B. pilosicoli to adhere to and invade the gut epithelium and that any interference of motility may be a useful tool for the development of control strategies.